• What is project management.
  • Why is it necessary to have project management skills.
  • What skills do you think are required to manage a successful project?
  • What factors can affect successful delivery of a project?


At the end of the session the candidates should progressively be able to:

  • Discuss project management terminology and concepts.
  • Develop plan, implement, control and evaluate a project.
  • Manage resources and conflict effectively.
  • To write project report.

What is project management?

  • Kliem R.L. and Ludin I.S.(1998:4)defines Project Management as tools, techniques and processes for defining, planning, organising, controlling and leading a project as it completes it tasks and deliver results.
  • Is the process and activity of planning, organising, motivating and controlling resources, procedures and protocol to achieve specific goal or daily problem in a scientific way.
  • Project Management involves taking a idea or ideas and converting them into a planned, resourced and funded project.
  • Project management, then, is the application of processes, methods, knowledge, skills, tools techniques and experiences to achieve the project objectives.

The process of project management involves the use of combination of knowledge, skills, resources and strategies to achieve the desired goal. Project management therefore involves thorough planning and optimal use of resources.  Organisations are looking for people or managers who can manage projects quickly, effectively and successfully.



  • Project Management involves designing, developing, analysing and evaluating the project.
  • Project management is the discipline of initiating, planning, executing, controlling, and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria.

What is project Management

  • Kliem R.L. and Ludin I.S.(1998:4) define a project as a discrete set of activities performed in a logical sequence to attain a specific result.
  • A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or a result with a defined beginning and end.
  • A project is a unique endeavor undertaken to achieve planned objectives.
  • A project is a task which has a start and an end date.

Phases of project management

Typical project cycle consist of phases that result in output.

  • CONCEPT PHASE: during this phase the idea of a project will be carefully examined to determine whether or not it will benefit the organization. During this phase a decision making team will identify if the project can be completed realistically. preliminary cost and schedule estimates are developed to determine if the project is feasible and will have payback.
  • THE FORMULATION PHASE: In this phase a project plan, project charter and or a project scope is developed. The team calculate a budget and draft a schedule and determine what resources are needed. This plans often include a statement of work a work breakdown structure and schedules.
  • IMPLEMENTATION PHASE : In this phase is when the plan is executed as prescribed during the formulation phase. Resources and tasks are distributed and teams are informed of their responsibilities.
  • Project monitoring and controlling : During this phase the project manager keep track of the progress and monitor the progress against the actual plan and schedules. The project manager may need to adjust schedule or do what is necessary to keep the project on track.
  • THE INSTALLATION PHASE: during this phase the final product or service is delivered to the customer/ client. The client has to approve or reject the outcome. A project is then closed and an evaluation is necessary to highlight the success of the project and lessons learnt from the project needs to be documented for informing future related projects.
  • Depending on the type of a project then follows the sustaining phase. If training is necessary for sustaining the project it happens during this phase.
  • THE SUSTAINING PHASE : This phase is under the customer’s control infrastructure to maintain and enhance the product or the service depending on the type of product or service


1.The scope of a project is the sum total of all project products and their requirements or features. Sometimes scope is used to refer to the totality of work needed to complete a project.

2.Critical Path Analysis (CPA) is an effective method for planning and managing projects. The critical path analysis represents what tasks need done, and when they need done

3.A task is an activity that needs to be accomplished within a defined period of time. Tasks are generally pieces of work that require effort and resources and have a concrete outcome or deliverable.

4.Resources can be defined as the personnel, equipment, materials and services required to complete tasks in a project.

Types of resources:

  • Personnel are the people employed to the organisation to work on a project or task.
  • Equipment is the machinery allocated to the project, whether mechanical or electronic, eg engineering machines, computers.
  • Materials are the property that may be included in or attached to a deliverable or consumed or expended in performing a task. They include assemblies, components, parts, fuels and lubricants, raw and processed materials, and small tools and supplies.
  • Services are areas where labour is expended without producing a tangible commodity, eg accounting, secretarial or legal services
  1. A schedule is a timeline of events and activities which can be used as an operating timetable. It can be presented on a calendar framework or on an elapsed time scale and specifies the occurrence, times of events and the relative start and finish times of activities
    6. A risk is an event, which is uncertain and has a negative impact on some activity.
  1. Risk analysis is the process of quantitatively or qualitatively assessing risks. It involves estimating both the uncertainty of the risk and its impact.
  2. Schedule risk is the risk that the project takes longer than scheduled. It can lead to cost risks, as longer projects always cost more, and to performance risk, if the project is completed too late to perform its intended tasks fully.
  3. 9. Estimating Project Duration and Costs
  • The duration of a project can only be estimated once you know what resources are available and needed.
  • Costs how much will it cost to complete a project . Costs are normally split into labour costs and non-labour costs.
  • Project summary provides an overview of what the project is all about.
  1. Stakeholder/s a stakeholder is any person or organization that forms part of the project team, has any vested interest or perceived interest in the project or that may be affected by the project. This includes clients, customers, owners or recipients of the deliverables, end users, functional manager to whom the project manager report to, the project sponsor. The project sponsor is the person or organization that finances the project.


Identify a challenge or problem in the community

Then develop a project scope /project charter or project plan to eradicate/ deal with the problem


  • Indicate the name of the project.
  • Set the objectives of the project (two - three)
  • Determine risks of the project
  • Estimate the duration(draft the schedule or work break down)
  • Draft the budget of the project.(estimate cost )

    (use template provided and submit on line)

The project manager can make or break the project

A project manager  is required to have multiple skills:

  • People management skills.
  • Interpersonal skills.
  • Communication & Listening skills.
  • Leadership skills.
  • Conflict management.
  • Time management skills.
  • Supervisory skills.
  • Assertiveness skills.
  • Mentoring and Couching skills.
  • Negotiation skills.
  • Ability to persuade and influence people rather than give instruction.
  • Provide management skills= planning, leading, organising and controlling.
  • Knowledge of the law of contracts.
  • Financial matters and Costing.
  • Computer literacy skills.
  • good understanding of how to manage risks.
  • Skills to do the work related to the project concerned.

Duties and responsibilities of project Manager

  • Set clear project goals.
  • Set up a project plan.
  • Determine the size of the project.
  • Do project risk analysis.
  • Set up a project budget.
  • Define the roles and tasks of the team.
  • Understand and know the requirements of a project .
  • Implement the project.
  • Manage recourses.
  • Delegate responsibilities of the project.
  • Hold status meeting and update management on progress of the project
  • Control the project risks.
  • Evaluate the project.
  • Write a report.

Common reasons why projects fail

Why projects fail?

A successful project

A successful project is the one which:

  • Has been finished on time.
  • It has been completed within its cost budget.
  • Is of the quality that satisfies the end user.

Success of the project

In summary

  • Defining the reasons why a project is necessary.
  • Capturing project requirements, specifying the deliverables, estimating resources and time scales.
  • Preparing a business case to justify the investment.
  • Securing funding.
  • Developing and implementing a management plan of the project.
  • Leading and motivating the project delivery team
  • Managing risks, issues and changes on the project.
  • Monitoring the progress against plan.
  • Managing the project budget.
  • Maintaining communication with stakeholders.
  • Closing the project.